Research on parking violations in Freiburg's city center

17. May 2022.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Humpe


Over-parked city centers are a pressing problem. There is a lot of individual traffic, but not enough parking spaces. Moreover, almost all of them are metered. This problem causes offences, in that the price of the

of parking fees is weighed against the cost of fines. Often, people park outside of designated areas, which results in blocking pedestrian and bicycle paths as well as entrances and driveways.


The objective of the research was to calculate the probability of parking violations based on the frequency of inspections using available duty rosters and the parking violations recorded. It was also determined how high the number of parking violators actually is.


For the study, the Freiburg city area was divided into geographical hexagons. Subsequently, the temporal-spatial probabilities were calculated of how high the risk per hexagon hour is of being fined when parking incorrectly.

The results confirm: In 61.3 percent of hexagon hours located in the center and in 94.4 percent of hexagon hours located outside, it is economically advantageous not to pay parking fines.


Gössling, S., Humpe, A., Hologa, R., Riach, N., Freytag, T.: Parking violations as an economic gamble for public space.

Transport Policy 116. Elsevier. Dezember 2021. Abzurufen unter